مروری بر کاربرد انرژی های تجدیدپذیر در سیستم های نمک زدایی از آب دریا

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی انرژی‏های نو و محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ علوم و فنون نوین، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی انرژی‌های نو و محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ علوم و فنون نوین، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

چکیده

افزایش جمعیت، توسعۀ شهرنشینی و صنعتی شدن سبب افزایش درخور توجه تقاضای آب شیرین در جهان شده است. شیرین‌سازی منابع آب در دسترس و فراوان موجود، گزینه‏ای مطلوب و توجیه‏پذیر برای پاسخ به نیاز آب آشامیدنی و مصرفی صنعت است. نمک‏زدایی آب دریا فرایندی انرژی‏بر است و با توجه به اینکه 99 درصد تأسیسات نمک‏زدایی نصب‌شده از سوخت‏های فسیلی به‏عنوان منبع انرژی بهره می‏گیرند، عواملی همچون قیمت متغیر و پایان‏پذیری این نوع منابع انرژی، تأثیرات مخرب زیست‏محیطی ناشی از انتشار آلاینده‏ها و گازهای گلخانه‏ای در کنار سایر فاکتورهای راهبردی، سیاسی و اجتماعی سبب توجه گسترده به توسعۀ کاربرد انرژی‏های تجدیدپذیر به عنوان نیروی محرکۀ تأسیسات نمک‏زدایی شده است. ‏پژوهش حاضر به مروری جامع بر پیشرفت‏های صورت‌گرفته در ترکیب منابع انرژی‏های تجدیدپذیر با فناوری‏های مرسوم و نوین در حوزۀ نمک‏زدایی آب دریا پرداخته و تمرکز آن بر تشریح فناوری‏ها و مطالعات انجام‌شده در کاربرد انرژی خورشیدی، انرژی هسته‏ای، انرژی بادی، انرژی زمین‏گرمایی، انرژی‏های اقیانوسی، انرژی زیست‌توده و انرژی‏های تجدیدپذیر ترکیبی در نمک‏زدایی است. استفادۀ ترکیبی از دو یا چند منبع انرژی تجدیدپذیر به همراه سیستم‏های ذخیره‏ساز، راه حلی مطمئن و نویدبخش به منظور تأمین پایدار انرژی مورد نیاز نمک‏زدایی معرفی شده است. در کشور ما نیز محققان و متخصصان این ‏حوزه در حال تلاش و پژوهش هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Renewable energy-driven seawater desalination: A comprehensive review

نویسندگان [English]

  • فدایی Fadaei 1
  • Younes Noorollahi 2
  • Fatemeh Razi Astaraei 2
1 Department of renewable energy and environment, Tehran University
2 دانشگاه تهران
چکیده [English]

Population growth, urbanization, and industrialization have led to a significant increase in global freshwater demand. Desalination of available and abundant water resources is a feasible option to meet the potable and industrial water demand. Seawater desalination is an energy-intensive process, and 99% of installed desalination plants use fossil fuels as the main energy source. Fluctuating prices and depletion of this type of energy resources, as well as their destructive environmental effects due to emissions and greenhouse gases along with other strategic, political, economic, and social factors, have led to widespread attention to the integration of renewable energy as a driving force for desalination plants. This study provides a comprehensive review of the recent progress made in renewable energy-driven seawater desalination and focuses on the use of solar, nuclear, wind, geothermal, ocean, biomass energy, and hybrid renewable resources in desalination. Utilizing a hybrid system of two or more renewable energy sources along with storage devices is proposed as a reliable and promising solution to provide a sustainable energy supply for desalination. In our country, researchers and experts in this field are trying and researching.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Seawater desalination
  • Freshwater
  • renewable energy resources
  • Hybrid systems
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