سنجش و ارزیابی خطر آلودگی آب و رسوبات ساحلی در مصب خورهای شهر بندرعباس

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد ژئومورفولوژی، دانشکدۀ محیط زیست، دانشگاه تهران

2 دکتری تخصصی علوم و مهندسی آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس

3 دکتری تخصصی آب‌‏وهواشناسی- مخاطرات محیطی، دانشگاه ملایر

چکیده

امروزه یکی از مشکلاتی که اکولوژی ساحلی را تهدید می‌‏کند، ورود پساب‌های شهری از طریق خورها به دریا است. تخلیۀ پساب‌ها به خورهای چهارگانۀ بندرعباس، سبب آلودگی سواحل خلیج ‏فارس می‌‏شود که برای تدوین راهبردهای مدیریت در کاهش ریسک خطر آلودگی، پایش آلاینده‌ها در اولویت است. به این منظور و برای دستیابی به این رهیافت، پژوهش حاضر پارامترهای فیزیکوشیمیایی آب و فلزات سنگین در رسوبات خورهای چهارگانۀ بندرعباس شامل خور سورو، گورسوزان، شیلات و نخل ناخدا را طی چهار فصل در سال 1398 پایش کرده و با شاخص‌های آلودگی ارزیابی کرد. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد غلظت DO، BOD، COD، TSS، Cd، Zn، NO3، PO4، دترجنت و چربی‌ها در چهار خور بندرعباس، بیشتر از حد استاندارد محیط زیست بود. اختلاف توزیع زمانی و مکانی آلاینده‌های کیفی آب در سطح 95 درصد معنادار بود و بیشینۀ آن در خور گورسوزان و از لحاظ زمانی نیز به‌‏ترتیب در تابستان، بهار، پاییز و زمستان بود. الگوی متوسط غلظت فلزات سنگین در رسوبات Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd بود که به‌‏ترتیب میانگین غلظت آنها 20/103، 55/52، 95/19 و 611/0 میلی‌‏گرم در کیلوگرم اندازه‌‏گیری شد. بیشینۀ غلظت فلزات سنگین در خور گورسوزان بود و ارزیابی آلودگی فلزات سنگین در رسوبات با شاخص‌های Igeo، CF، mdc و PLI نشان داد کادمیوم، مس و سرب در چهار خور بندرعباس، در طبقۀ آلودگی متوسط تا شدید قرار دارند. غلظت زیاد فلزات سنگین بیانگر تأثیر فعالیت‌های انسانی شامل تخلیۀ پساب‌های شهری به کانال خور است. نتایج پایش کیفی نشان‌‏دهندۀ شدت زیاد آلودگی در ساحل بندرعباس است که اکوسیستم آبزیان را با خطر انقراض تهدید می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Measurement and evaluation of water pollution and coastal sediments in estuaries of Bandar Abbas

نویسندگان [English]

  • ahmad nohegar 1
  • samaneh habibi 2
  • Mahmoud Behrouzi 3
1 Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran
2 Watershed Management Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas
3 Environmental Hazards, Malayer University,, Malayer, Iran
چکیده [English]

one of the problems that threatens coastal ecology is the entry of urban wastewater into the sea by estuaries. Discharge of wastewater into the four estuaries of Bandar Abbas pollutes the coast of the Persian Gulf, which is a priority for the development of management strategies to reduce the risk of pollution. In order to achieve this approach, the present study measured the physicochemical parameters of water and heavy metals in the sediments of the four estuaries of Bandar Abbas, including Sooro, Goursoozan, Shilat and Nakhle Nakhoda estuaries during four seasons in 2019 and Evaluated by pollution indicators. The results showed that the concentrations of DO, BOD, COD, TSS, Cd, Zn, NO3, PO4, detergent and oils in the four estuaries of Bandar Abbas were higher than the environmental standard. The difference in temporal and spatial distribution of water quality pollutants was significant at the level of 95% and its maximum was in Goursoozan and in terms of time in summer, spring, autumn and winter, respectively. The average pattern of heavy metal concentration in the sediments was Zn> Cu> Pb> Cd which mean concentrations was 103.20, 52.55, 19.95 and 0.611 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum metals were in Goursoozan and the evaluation of metal in sediments with Igeo, CF, mdc and PLI indices showed that Cd, Cu and Pb in four estuaries of Bandar Abbas, in the category of moderate to severe pollution. High concentrations of heavy metals indicated the impact of human activities, including the discharge of wastewater into the estuary.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dissolved Oxygen
  • Heavy metals
  • wastewater of Urban
  • Goursoozan estuary
  • Pollution load index
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دوره 8، شماره 2
تیر 1400
صفحه 411-429
  • تاریخ دریافت: 03 دی 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 22 اردیبهشت 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 22 اردیبهشت 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 31 خرداد 1400