پایش خشکسالی در استان تهران با استفاده از داده ‏های ماهوارۀ TRMM

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، واحد اسلامشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اسلامشهر، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، واحد اسلامشهر، اسلامشهر، ایران

چکیده

خشکسالی پدیده‌ای اقلیمی است که بخش‏ های مختلف محیط زیست را طی دورۀ استمرار خود تحت تأثیر قرار می‏ دهد. بیشتر سیستم ‏های ارزیابی خشکسالی بر مبنای داده‏ های بارش استوارند. با وجود این، کوتاه بودن دورۀ آماری بسیاری از داده‏ ها، تراکم ناکافی ایستگاه‏ ها و کیفیت نامطلوب داده‏ های باران‌سنجی زمینی، توانایی نشان دادن الگوی مکانی خشکسالی را کاهش می‏ دهد. از این‌رو، هدف تحقیق حاضر پایش خشکسالی در استان تهران با استفاده از داده ‏های شبکه‏ ای بارش است. به این‌منظور، از داده‏ های بارش ماهانۀ شش ایستگاه همدید در استان تهران و داده‏ های ماهانۀ بارش ماهوارۀ TRMM با قدرت تفکیک مکانی 25/0 × 25/0 درجۀ جغرافیایی طی دورۀ 1998ـ 2019 استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان داده است خروجی شاخص SPI 12 ماهه برای نقاط TRMM همخوانی مناسبی با ایستگاه ‏های همدیدی دارد و ویژگی ‏های خشکسالی در ایستگاه‌های مختلف همسو و منطبق با نقاط مختلف شبکۀ TRMM است. در 36 درصد دورۀ مطالعه‌شده بارش استان در محدودۀ نرمال و در 64 درصد آن، شاهد ناهنجاری بارش هستیم. در همۀ نقاط استان فراوانی دوره‌های خشک و مرطوب با هم برابر هستند و هر یک 8/31 درصد را به خود اختصاص داده‌اند. از نظر شدت، بیشتر ناهنجاری‏ های بارش در استان تهران از نوع ملایم و متوسط هستند، به طوری که فراوانی خشکسالی ملایم 18 درصد، خشکسالی متوسط 9 درصد و خشکسالی شدید حدود 5/4 درصد است. رخداد بسیار شدید خشکسالی در هیچ‌یک از نقاط استان طی 22 سال اخیر به وجود نیامده است. همچنین، سال‏های 2001، 2008، 2013 و 2014 شدیدترین دوره ‏های خشکسالی فراگیر در استان محسوب می‌شوند که بیشتر مناطق در این سال‏ها از خشکسالی متوسط تا شدید رنج می‌برند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Drought Monitoring in Tehran Province Using TRMM Satellite Data

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vahid Najafi 1
  • Azadeh Arbabi 2
1 PhD Student, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran (Corresponding Author)
چکیده [English]

Drought is a climatic phenomenon that affects different parts the environment during its continuation. Most drought assessment systems are mainly based on rainfall data. short statistical period of many data, insufficient density of stations and poor quality of ground rainfall data, reduces the ability show the spatial pattern of drought. the current paper aims at monitoring drought in Tehran province using rainfall network data. Thus, monthly precipitation data six synoptic stations in Tehran province and monthly precipitation data of TRMM satellite with spatial resolution of.25 × .25 degrees during the period (1998-2019) have been used. The results show that output of the 12-month SPI index for TRMM points is in good agreement with synoptic stations and the drought characteristics at different stations are consistent with different points of the TRMM network. In 36% of the study period, the rainfall in the province is in normal range and in 64% the rainfall is not normal. In all parts of the province, frequency dry and wet periods is equal and each of which with 31.8%. In terms of severity, most precipitation anomalies in Tehran province are mild and moderate, so that the frequency of mild drought is 18%, moderate drought is 9% and severe drought is about 4.5%. Extremely severe drought has not occurred in any part of the province in the last 22 years. Also, 2001, 2008, 2013 and 2014 are the most severe periods of widespread severe drought in the province, with most areas suffering from moderate to severe drought.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought Monitoring
  • network data
  • TRMM Satellite
  • SPI Index
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