برآورد شاخص‏ های جریان محیط‏ زیستی در پایین ‏دست سدهای گلستان و وشمگیر

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران‌

2 استاد، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 استادیار، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

4 دانشجوی دکتری آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

چکیده

جریان رودخانه ‏ای یکی از منابع آبی مهم است که برای مصارف مختلف ‌اهمیت دارد و روند تغییرات آن در مدیریت منابع آب ضروری است و از طرفی، جریان رودخانه‏ ای توسط سدها، انحراف جریان، جریان‏ برگشتی و توسعۀ شهری تحت‏ تأثیر قرار می‌گیرد و منجر به مسائل مختلفی از جمله وقوع خشکسالی، کاهش آبدهی و مسائل محیط ‏زیستی می‏شود. هدف تحقیق حاضر، برآورد 34 شاخص‏ جریان محیط‏ زیستی در پایین‏دست سدهای گلستان و وشمگیر با استفاده از نرم ‏افزار IHA نسخۀ 1/7 است. برای انجام این کار، ایستگاه‏ های هیدرومتری گنبد و قزاقلی در پایین ‏دست سد گلستان برای بررسی اثر احداث سد گلستان و ایستگاه هیدرومتری آق‏قلا به‏منظور بررسی اثر احداث سد وشمگیر مد نظر قرار گرفتند. همچنین، به‏منظور بررسی وضعیت تغییر اقلیم در منطقۀ مطالعه‌شده، وجود روند در مقادیر متغیرهای اقلیمی بارش، دما و تبخیر و تعرق با استفاده آزمون من-کندال و شیب سن در سطح اطمینان 1 و 5 درصد ارزیابی شد. نتایج آزمون روند نشان داد ‌تغییر در متغیرهای اقلیمی اغلب به‏ صورت افزایش بارش و دما و روند معنا‏دار افزایشی و کاهشی تبخیر و تعرق است. همچنین، نتایج نشان داد دبی اوج پالس ‏های بالای جریان در ایستگاه‏های هیدرومتری گنبد، قزاقلی و آق‏قلا به‏ترتیب 28، 38 و 5/30 مترمکعب بر ثانیه با فراوانی صفر، دو و یک روزه در دورۀ بعد از احداث سدها است. دبی اوج شاخص سیلاب‏های کوچک در ایستگاه‏های هیدرومتری گنبد، قزاقلی و آق‏قلا به‏ترتیب 46، 107 و 8/149 مترمکعب بر ثانیه با فراوانی صفر روزه، سدهای گلستان و وشمگیر به دلیل اثر خودتنظیمی سبب روند کاهشی این شاخص شده‏ اند. با توجه به شاخص سیلاب‏ های بزرگ می ‏توان نتیجه گرفت که در ایستگاه‏های گنبد و قزاقلی دبی اوج شاخص سیلاب‏های بزرگ با مقدار صفر مترمکعب بر ثانیه روند کاهشی و در ایستگاه آق‏قلا دبی اوج با مقدار 274 مترمکعب بر ثانیه، روند کاهشی نشان می‏ دهد. در نهایت، به دلیل اثر خودتنظیمی سد‏های گلستان و وشمگیر باعث کاهش تغییرات ماهانه و سیلاب‏ های بزرگ و کوچک جریان شده و در بیشتر ماه‏های سال، دبی جریان در دوره‏های بعد از احداث سد‏ها کمتر است. نتایج حاصل از این تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل می‌تواند در تصمیم‏گیری در مورد مسائل مدیریت پایدار منابع آب برای تدوین برنامۀ مدیریت حوضه در آینده استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation of Environmental Flow Indicators in the Downstream of Golestan and Voshmgir Dams

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Daechini 1
  • Mehxi Vafakhah 2
  • Vahid Moosavi 3
  • Mostafa Zabihi Silabi 4
1 Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran Province, Iran
2 Professor
3 Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran Province, Iran
4 Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran Province, Iran
چکیده [English]

According to the results of the trend test, the changes in climatic variables have often been in an increasing trend in precipitation and temperature and a significant increasing or decreasing trend in evapotranspiration. The results also showed that peak discharge of high current pulses rates in Gonbad, Ghazaghli and Agh Ghala hydrometric stations are 28, 38 and 30.5 m3/s with a frequency of zero-, two- and one-day in the period after the construction of dams, respectively. The peak discharge indicator of small floods in Gonbad, Ghazaghli and Agh Ghala hydrometric stations are 46, 107 and 149.8 m3/s with a frequency of zero-day, respectively, Golestan and Voshmgir dams have been caused a decreasing trend in this indicator due to self-regularity of the dams. Finally, according to the large Flood indicators, it can be concluded that in Gonbad and Ghazaghli stations, peak discharge of the large floods indicator with a flow rate of zero m3/s has a decreasing trend and in Agh Ghala station with a flow rate of 274 m3/s shows a decreasing trend. Finnally, due to self-regulatory effect of Golestan and Voshmgir dams dams have been caused low monthly changes and large and small floods and in the most months of the year, the flow discharge is lower in the periods after the construction of the dams. The results of this analysis can be used the decision-making on sustainable water resources management issues for future watershed management plans.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate Variables
  • Flow regime
  • Environmental Flow Indicators
  • trend
  • Environmental Water Requirement
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