ارزیابی و برآورد میزان خطر فرسایش کناره‌ای رودخانه با استفاده از مدل BANCS (مطالعۀ موردی: رودخانۀ واز استان مازندران)

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ژئومورفولوژی‌ـ مخاطرات ژئومورفولوژیک، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشکدۀ علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشکدۀ جغرافیای دانشگاه مازندران

چکیده

فرسایش و انتقال رسوب از جمله فرایندهای هیدرودینامیکی مهمی است که بسیاری از سیستم‌های هیدرولیکی نظیر حوضه‌های آبریز، رودخانه‌ها، سواحل و بنادر، سدها، پل‌ها، جاده‌ها، کشتزارها و تأسیسات عمرانی را متأثر می‌سازد. رودخانۀ واز یکی از رودخانه‌های مهم دامنۀ شمالی البرز در استان مازندران است. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی وضعیت پایداری کنارۀ رودخانۀ واز با استفاده از مدل BANCS که شامل دو شاخص NBS‌ و BEHI است. برای برآورد میزان فرسایش کناره‌ای در رودخانۀ واز، بازۀ 3 کیلومتری انتخاب شد. سپس، با انتخاب 8 مقطع عرضی با استفاده از برداشت میدانی و نقشه‌برداری پارامتر‌های ارتفاع کناره، زاویۀ کناره، ارتفاع کناره، عرض دبی لبالبی، عمق متوسط در دبی لبالبی، بیشترین عمق متوسط کناره در دبی لبالبی، شعاع انحنا و جنس مواد کناره در دو شاخص مورد نظر اندازه‌گیری شد. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست‌آمده برای هر یک از مقاطع در دو شاخص خطر فرسایش کناره و تنش برشی نزدیک کناره و مقایسۀ آنها با مشاهدات میدانی کناره‌های با خطر فرسایش کناره‌ای بیشتر و کناره‌های پایدارتر مشخص شد. مقایسۀ نتایج از این دو شاخص با مشاهدات میدانی نشان داد مدل BEHI نسبت به مدل NBS برای رودخانۀ واز کارآمدتر است. با توجه به نتایج شاخص BEHI میزان خطر فرسایش کناره 8 مقطع و در هر دو کناره وجود دارد، به طوری که در کنارۀ چپ مقاطع 3، 5 و 6 و کنارۀ راست مقاطع 1، 4 و 7 میزان فرسایش زیاد بوده است و در کنارۀ راست مقاطع 2، 3 و 6 و کنارۀ مقاطع 1 و 6 فرسایش کم بوده و در سایر کناره‌ها فرسایش متوسط بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The evaluation and assessment of bank erosion risk using BANCS model: a case study in northern Iran, Waz River, Mazandaran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Milad Rostami 1
  • Mohammad Mahdi Hoseinzadeh 2
  • Reza Esmaili 3
1 Department of Physical GeographyFaculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University
2 Associate Professor of Geomorphology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran
3 Associate Professor of Geomorphology Faculty of Faclty of Earth Sciences. Mazandaran University Babolsar
چکیده [English]

The erosion phenomenon and sediment transport are the most important hydrodynamic processes that effect watersheds, rivers, coasts, ports, dams, bridges, roads, farms, and civil facilities. Waz is one of the main rivers on the northern slope of Alborz in Mazandaran province. This river has a morphological dynamic behavior and affected by various factors including geology, slope, land-use, and the condition of hydraulic flow. The aim of this study was to assessing the bank of Waz River stability using BANCS model, which is include NBS and BEHI indexes. To assessing the rate of bank erosion in the Waz River, in a three kilometer interval, eight cross-section were selected using field impression and mapping the parameters e.g. side height and angle, bank-full width, bank-full average depth, the maximum average-depth of bank in bank-full, the curvature radius, and bank material based on NBS and BEHI models. Regarding the results for each cross-section based on bank erosion risk index, near bank shear stress and comparing with field surveys, the banks with more risk of bank erosion and more stable banks were determined. Besides, comparing the results obtained from BEHI and NBS models with field surveys showing more efficiency of BEHI model for the Waz River.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Waz River
  • Bank erosion
  • BANCS model
  • BEHI index
  • NBS index
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