تخمین میزان آب مجازی و هزینۀ آب مجازی برای تولید انرژی الکتریکی در نیروگاه‏های منتخب فسیلی و تجدیدپذیر کشور

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت محیط زیست، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران شمال، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ علوم و فنون دریایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران شمال، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار دانشکدۀ علوم‏ و‏ فنون ‏نوین، دانشگاه ‏تهران، ایران

چکیده

محاسبۀ آب مجازی در فرایند تولید برق از مهم‏ترین و جدیدترین مسائل حوزۀ محیط زیستی است که جایگاه ویژه‏ای در امنیت پیوند آب و انرژی دارد. در ایران به واسطۀ داشتن منابع فسیلی نیروگاه‌های فسیلی سهم عمده‏ای در تأمین نیاز برقی کشور دارند. از طرفی، محدودیت منابع آب از اصلی‏ترین چالش‏های تولید الکتریسیته در آینده برای کشورمان محسوب خواهد شد. بنابراین، هدف این تحقیق، محاسبۀ میزان مصرف آب مجازی در برق تولیدی در انواع نیروگاه‏های فسیلی و همچنین، هزینۀ آب مجازی مصرف‌شده برای تولید برق است. برای محاسبۀ مقادیر آب مصرفی در فرایند تولید برق، از روش حل مخصوص به آن که بر پایۀ مشخصات فنی نیروگاه‏ها و بازده تولید برق آنهاست، استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد میزان آب مجازی مصرفی در نیروگاه‏های مختلف تابع نوع نیروگاه و نوع سیستم خنک‌کنندۀ آن است. مصرف آب در نیروگاه‏های بخاری، سیکل ترکیبی و گازی به‌ترتیب برابر است با 38/1، 29/0 و 025/0 لیتر بر کیلووات‏ساعت و در نیروگاه‏های فتوولتاییک و بادی ناچیز است. بنابراین، برای توسعه و رشد صنعت نیروگاهی کشور، انتخاب نوع نیروگاه و به‌ویژه نوع سیستم خنک‌کننده در صرفه‌جویی مصرف آب نقش مهمی ایفا می‏کند. هرچند که به دلیل ارزان بودن قیمت هر واحد آب خام صنعتی، شرب مراکز دولتی و آبیاری فضای سبز، مقدار هزینۀ آب مجازی ناچیز و قابل چشم‌پوشی است، اما مصرف زیاد آب در فرایند‏های نیروگاهی برای تولید برق به عنوان یک صنعت آب‌بر نشان می‏دهد با انتخاب آگاهانه در مسیر توسعۀ انرژی می‏توان مقدار قابل توجهی از هدررفت منابع آب و نیز کاهش آلودگی حرارتی منابع آبی (در سیستم‏های خنک‌کنندۀ یک‌بارگذر) جلوگیری کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Virtual water estimation and cost of virtual water for electricity generation in selected fossil and renewable power plants in the country

نویسندگان [English]

  • neda rezaei 1
  • rokhshad hejazi 2
  • Hossein Yousefi 3
1 Environmental Management / Faculty of Marine Science and Technology / Islamic Azad University / Tehran/Iran
2 Department of Environmental Management / Faculty of Marine Science and Technology / Islamic Azad University / Tehr//Iran
چکیده [English]

Currently in Iran, due to the availability of fossil resources, a huge amount of the country's electricity needs are met with the help of fossil power plants. But limited water resources will be one of the main challenges in generating electricity for our country in the future. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to calculate the amount of virtual water consumption in electricity generation in various fossil and renewable power plants and also the cost of virtual water used to generate electricity.
Water consumption in steam turbine, combined cycle and gas turbine is equal to 1.38, 0.29 and 0.025 liters per kilowatt-hour, respectively, and in photovoltaic and wind power plants is very low. Therefore, in order to develop and grow the country's power industry, choosing the type of power plant and especially the type of cooling system plays an important role in saving water consumption. Although the cost of virtual water is negligible due to the low cost of each unit of industrial raw water, drinking water in government centers and irrigation of green spaces, the high consumption of water in power plant processes to generate electricity as a water industry shows Shows that by consciously choosing the path of energy development, a significant amount of waste of water resources can be prevented and also the reduction of heat pollution of water resources (in single-pass cooling systems) can be prevented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fossil Power Plant
  • Power generation
  • Renewable Power Plant
  • Virtual water
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