پایش و ارزیابی تغییرات مکانی هدایت الکتریکی خاک با استفاده از سنجش از دور

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه آب و هواشناسی، دانشکدۀ انسانی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 استادیار، گروه آب و هواشناسی، دانشکدۀ انسانی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 دانشجوی دکترای آب و هواشناسی، دانشکدۀ انسانی، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

‌شور شدن خاک‏ها، مسئلۀ مهم محیطی است که سبب کاهش بهره‏وری خاک می‏شود. برای مدیریت بهینۀ منابع خاکی پایش کمی شوری خاک، تغییرات زمانی و تحلیل فضایی عوامل تأثیرگذار بر آن ضروری به نظر می‏رسد. هدف از تحقیق حاضر، استخراج نقشۀ پراکندگی شوری خاک و تحلیل فضایی آن پس از بارش‏های بیش از نرمال سال آبی 1397ـ 1398 در غرب ایران است. با استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره‏ای لندست و شاخص GDVI و به‏وسیلۀ الگوریتم نوشته‏شده در سامانۀ گوگل اینجین، نقشۀ هدایت الکتریکی خاک استخراج ‏شده و در پنج کلاس شوری طبقه‏بندی شد. نتایج نشان داد به‏طور کلی شوری خاک در محدودۀ مطالعه‌شده کاهش‏ یافته است. اگر عامل بارشی در دورۀ مطالعه‌شده مهم‏ترین عامل در تغییرات پراکندگی شوری بدانیم، مناطق با شوری شدید که در کلاس ارتفاعات کم قرار دارند، تغییری نکرده است. این عامل به دلیل وجود سازندهای شور و شیب ملایم اطراف آنها نتوانسته تأثیر زیادی بر کلاس شوری شدید بگذارد، اما کلاس با شوری متوسط بیشترین تغییرات را داشته و بارش توانسته است شوری سطح خاک این کلاس را به پایین‏دست جابه‏جا کند.جهت بیضی سه برابر انحراف استاندارد مکانی شمال غربی به جنوب شرقی به دست آمد که نشان می‏دهد بیش از 99 درصد پراکندگی شوری به تبعیت از آرایش مکانی ارتفاعات، بارش و پراکندگی رده‏های خاک در این راستا گسترش دارد. آمارۀ 4566/0شاخص موران و P_Value مقدار 00/0 خودهمبستگی مکانی شوری خاک را در غرب کشور نشان داد.نقشۀ لکه‏های داغ نیز نشان داد شوری سطحی خاک به‏صورت خوشه‏ای در راستای شمال غرب و به جنوب شرق و در ارتفاعات کمتر از 1200 متر قرار دارد.تحلیل لکه‏های داغ نیز نشان داد شوری خاک به سمت شرق و داخل کشور بیشتر الگوی خوشه‏بندی پیدا کرده است. از نتایج و روش این تحقیق می‏توان به‌‏راحتی و با سرعت زیاد مناطقی که در معرض شوری خاک قرار دارند، شناسایی و پایش کرده و در برنامه‏ریزی‏های محیطی برای پیاده‏سازی اقدامات پیشگیرانه استفاده کرد. همچنین، از نتایج تحقیق حاضر و خروجی‏های آن برای شناسایی کانون‏های شوری خاک در برنامه‏ریزی‏های کشاورزی و تخصیص امکانات استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Monitoring and Evaluation of Spatial Variations in Soil Electrical Conductivity Using Remote Sensing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hossein Mir Mousavi 1
  • Kouhzad Raispour 2
  • Mohammad Kamangar 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Meteorology, Faculty of Humanities, Zanjan University, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Meteorology, Faculty of Humanities, Zanjan University, Iran
3 PhD Student in Meteorology, Faculty of Humanities, Zanjan University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil salinity is an important environmental issue that reduces soil productivity. For optimal management of soil resources, quantitative monitoring of soil salinity, temporal changes and spatial analysis of the factors affecting it are necessary. The purpose of this study is to extract the soil salinity distribution map and its spatial analysis after more than normal rainfall in the rainy year of 1997-98 in western Iran. Using Landsat satellite imagery and GDVI index and algorithm written in Google Engine system, soil electrical conductivity map was extracted and classified into five salinity classes. The results showed that in general, soil salinity has decreased in the study area. Areas with high salinity that are in the low altitude class have not changed. If the precipitation factor in this study period is the most important factor in changes in salinity distribution, this factor could not have a great effect on the salinity class, but the medium salinity class had the most changes. Move the soil surface of this class down. For the ellipse, three times the standard spatial deviation of the northwest to the southeast was obtained, which shows that more than 99% of the salinity dispersion follows the spatial arrangement of altitudes, precipitation and dispersion of soil categories in this direction. Statistics of 0.4566 of Moran index and P_Value showed 0.00 spatial salinity of soil salinity in the west of the country. The hot-spot map also showed that the surface salinity of the soil is clustered in the northwest and southeast directions at altitudes of less than 1200 meters. Hot-spot analysis also showed that soil salinity to the east and inland has found more clustering pattern. The results and methods of this research can easily and quickly identify areas that are exposed to soil salinity and could be used in environmental planning to implement preventive measures. The results of this research are also used and its outputs are also utilized to identify soil salinity centers in agricultural planning and allocation of facilities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil Salinity
  • Landsat images
  • GDVI index
  • G-Star statistics
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